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Management Files          

These "Management Files" are mainly for Middle & Senior Management and Business Owners.
The various topics are meant to remind and to stimulate management thought.

Please note: Our firm does not carry-out or furnish research in these areas. This area of our web site is available only as a public service to foster thought and better management in today's fast-paced environment when the human factor of business is often taken for granted and/or even overlooked.

We are not a source of facts.



Management Styles
Supervisory Approach
Management - Misc.
Communication - Non-verbal
Creative Process
Staff Motivation
Problem Employees
Personal Crisis -Indicators
Work Related Values &
Work Environment

Marketing Assessment
Customer Service

Management Files - main mage


                        Silent Approval: Indicators / Signs  |   Body Language of Leaders  |   Body Language
                        Eye Movements  |   Height  |   Eyes  |   Hands  |   Women

Non-Verbal Communication

      Studies show that during interpersonal communication
            - 7% of the message is verbally communicated
            - 93% is non-verbally transmitted
      Of the 93% non-verbal communication:
            - 38% is through vocal tones
            - 55% is through facial expressions
      We are educated to prefer words to communicate.
           Therefore, we can overlook non-verbal signals.
      Foot movements, voice variations, facial expressions are all forms of non-verbal
           communications that individuals send to each other.
           We may not verbally call someone stupid/dumb, but we may send the message
           non-verbally without realizing it.
      Body language is the oldest language. Often there is a discrepancy between
           someone's words and their physical actions.
           Confusion often occurs regarding what is heard or the message seems to
           be mixed. Usually in these instances, the verbal and messages are in conflict.
      When in doubt experts say to trust the non-verbal message -- what you see.
      Words can be manipulated, but gestures are harder to control.

Silent Approval: Indicators / Signs

      Discovered by Dr. Albert E. Scheflen. who noticed the phenomenon while
           studying people conversing in small groups.
      Observe the way people sit or stand while talking with others.
      If the person shifts position, the others, in agreement, are likely
           to quickly to do the same.
            - Next time your speaking, try to notice who among your listeners is sitting
              or standing in the same position as you are.
            - Then try changing your position (i.e. crossing your leg, folding / unfolding
              your arms...
            - Those who match your body positioning, are silently signaling their approval
              or agreeement.
            - More vigorous approvals include nods and pursing of lips.

Body Language of Leaders

      Studies have shown that people in power appear large, strong with
           relaxed posture.
      Superiority is signaled by:
            - Sitting while others stand
            - Lean back in their chairs
            - Expansive gesturing
            - Talking more, in louder voices
            - Interrupt others
      People see you.....not your credentials.
      Non-verbal signals can give you a head start.
            - Good posture identifies you as someone with something to say.
            - Stand tall, flex knees and pull rib cage up.
            - Look directly at the person / people you address -- no matter how many.
      It is the most remembered element in forming an impression.
      But do not stare --- 5 to 7 seconds maximum. (Various cultures differ)
      Make sure to focus on the eyes and not stare at the mouth or off to side.

Body Language

      Studies have shown that people generally stiffen / "freeze up" when lying.
           The person who barely moves while speaking should be suspect.
      Defensive and rejection postures include:
            - folded arms
            - crossed legs
            - body turned away from speaker


      A basic tenet of the psychology of perception is that size is associated
           with power.
      Whatever the mind judges as important, eye will judge as large.
      Therefore anyone who looms large in the mind is liable to be perceived large
           in your eyes.
      Psychologist find that height can have impact on interaction.
      Smaller people may have a feeling of jeopardy which may make them wary of
           or defensive around taller people.
      A study by Sidney Portney, psychologist, found that among themselves smaller
           probably had little trouble agreeing on the issues presented to them.
           But when taller men were added to their group, they grew noticeably ill at ease
           and argumentative.
      Tall women, on the other hand, are caught in a gap in American values.
            - On one hand, femininity has traditionally been associated with daintiness.
              On the other hand, the culture says bigger is better.
            - Tall women quickly discover that smaller individuals of both sexes assume
              they are strong.
            - In business, this perception of "power" (from being tall) can be a
              doubled-edged sword.
            - Subordinates will respect their "power," while superiors may feel threatened.
            - Clients may be intimidated and/or overwhelmed and therefore may back away.


      You are always communicating, and non-verbal communications is always
           revealed in the eyes.
      Eyes, it appears, are always "talking" and providing valuable clues.
            - Normal eye contact means communication is open.
            - Looking down, often rejection.
            - Avoiding eye contact suggest someone does not feel secure or included.
            - A stare can mean dislike.

      ** Keep in mind cultural differences

Eye Movements

      Research has shown that eye movement can indicate a lot about the person
      Person may be sincere if:
            - Eyes move upward --- stories about the past.
            - Eyes move side to side --- observations about the present.
      But, if:
            - Eyes constantly move upward when talking about present
                --- delivering a prepared, memorized speech
            - Eyes move from side to side when talking about past
              or recalling facts and information.
                --- likely to be liar or con-artis
            - Eyes never move upward to retrieve information.
                --- likely to be making it up.


      Since few movements of the hands, fingers and arms are directly related to
           what is going on the the mind, it can reveal what another person is thinking.
           Scientists observed that there are more nerves between the brain and hands
           than any other portion of the body.
            - Calm, confident and self-assured:
              Hands move little or may hang limply at person's side or rest gently if sitting.
            - Limp or hanging hand could signify a boredom, restlessness or tiredness.
              Depending on situation, it can also indicate frustration/digest.
            - Picking or biting is common in tense situations.
            - Hand held flat with palm outward or usually symbolizes "I do not know..."
            - Hands that are quite active: person is usually jittery, nervous or uneasy.
            - Clenched hands often mean tension and frustration, even anger.
      If a person is about to say something or wants to say something... there is
           a tendency to raise a finger slightly.
            - Shy or timid individuals may not get past this stage. Pushy/ aggressive
              people often preceive this as a sign of weakness that they can push aside
              or go around.
      A raised or slightly raised finger, usually used by those to authority, is used
           as a sign of warning.
      When this is not forceful and the finger/hand is only slightly raised
           usually indicates uncertainity.


      The challenge of being taken seriously...the body language learned growing
           up is often "apologetic." This will not lend to being takenseriously and moving
           into leadership positions.
      In business, women must appear assertive:
            - Stand akimbo (legs positioned a bit apart) with hands on hips.
            - In workplace, keep hands on arm rest of chair, not on lap.
            - Cross legs (relaxed), not tense and "glued" together.
            - Use expansive gesturing, from elbow.
            - Do not back away if challenged. Maintain eye contact and "hold" ground.
            - Be careful of moves that may be received as preening or provocative:
                --- brushing hair back
                --- nervous movement, such as repetitive crossing and uncrossing of legs

                        Non-Verbal Communication  |   Silent Approval  |   Body Language of Leaders
                        Body Language  |   Eye Movements  |   Height  |   Eyes

    For more information Contact Us.

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